How Crops Are Genetically modified?

How Crops Are Genetically modified?

Introduction: What are genetically modified crops?

Genetically modified crops are plants or crops who have been altered in a way that allows their DNA to be changed, typically by inserting genes from other organisms into the genome of the plant. There are different methods how crops are genetically modified which have been used to gain preferable traits from the crops.

Some GM crops are engineered to provide protection against pests, and some provide nutrients or other beneficial substances to the plant. The basic purpose of modifying crops is to increase the yield of a crop, often by adding traits that are not present in the original wild form of the plant.

How Crops Are Genetically modified?

How crops are genetically modified:

There are different ways to modify crops genetically such as :

  1.  Agrobacterium-mediated Transformation: This method is used to transfer genes from a plant virus into the plant genome by using agrobacterium tumefaciens bacteria to deliver the DNA into the plant cells in which it will integrate its own genes.

If this gene is isolated from the source organism then Insert the transgene into the Ti-plasmid. In the next step we transfer the T-DNA in the agrobacterium and attach the bacterium to the host cell.

  1.  Modified Seed Technology (MST): This is a method which is used in order to develop crops with desired traits from existing varieties of crop species or wild plants. MST is a method to modify the seed of crop plants with desired genes.

For this method we use the nuclear transfer into the nucleus of the donor cell and then transfer the gene in that through electroporation and other techniques. The other way to modify crops genetically are genetically engineered crops.

3.Gene Gun:

In this process “In the first step, we identify an interesting gene of interest. Then we prepare DNA in which we want to insert the gene. After that, we will connect a small amount of DNA (about 1-2kb) to a piece of glass.

Then place the DNA on a metal plate and place it inside the gene gun. The gene gun is a high voltage machine that shoots DNA into the target cells. The DNA will be shot into the nucleus of the target cells.

The gene gun can use a high voltage or low voltage, that depends on what we are trying to achieve. With high voltage, the DNA will go directly into the nucleus and will cause damage. With low voltage, the DNA will go into the cytoplasm and not cause any damage.

Genetically modified crops:

A lot of these crops have been modified such as cotton, corn, potatoes and soybeans. In the case of cotton it has been modified to be pest resistant. It contains a gene from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensisIt produces crystal insecticidal protein which is also called cry-proteins.

These kinds of proteins do not have any kind of impact on the mammals but in case of bollworms and caterpillars these proteins damage their digestive system.

Rice crops have also been modified but in some countries they are being used such as Pakistan. The risk of GMO crops is one of the reasons why many countries have banned the sale and use of such seeds.

This is because even though they are very effective in growing crops, there have been cases where these seeds have caused a lot of problems such as the creation of superweeds and resistant insect pests to these modified crops.

How Crops Are Genetically modified?

The benefits of genetically modified crops:

There are many benefits that genetically modified crops will bring to the table.

  • The world has been facing a food shortage for years and genetically modified crops can help solve this problem. GM foods are being looked upon as a solution to food supply problems.
  • By modifying crops genetically one of the biggest issues of pest attacks can be managed. This will help the farmers to provide food for the world. GM crops are being used in the fight against diseases.
  • Various businesses can be formed with such crops, which will aid in creating more job opportunities for farmers and agricultural workers.
  • By modifying crops we will be able to gain more yield which is beneficial for not only farmers but also the world. If you want to know more about getting maximum yield you can also visit “15 Ways to Gain Maximum Crop Yield“.
  • GM crops would be able to produce high nutritional value food which can be very helpful for those people who are not able to get high nutritional food in underdeveloped countries.

The risks of genetically modified crops:

There have been many concerns regarding the safety of GM crops, however, there is no direct link between genetically modified crops and any harmful effects on human health or the environment. The safety of GM crops has been proven through years of research.

There have been many studies done on the effects that GM food can have on various species. GM crops have been found to be safe for animals, humans and the environment. The risks of genetically modified foods are very minimal in comparison to the benefits that these crops bring.

How Crops Are Genetically modified?

Future of GM crops:

The future of genetically modified crops is very bright. There are many new GM crops that are currently being developed for commercialization, however, these GM foods will be labeled as “non-GMO” in order to avoid confusion and keep consumers safe.

There are many plant breeding and genetic departments working on different such as maize, soybean vegetables tobacco. In recent years many countries have been working together to develop different varieties Monsanto is also one of the major players in this field. The future of genetically modified crops is very bright.


Genetic engineering has become a valuable tool in the fight against hunger. It has increased crop production while decreasing the use of pesticides and other chemicals that are harmful to humans and the environment.

The tools such as Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, Modified Seed Technology, and Gene gun are mostly used for the inoculation of wanted genes in crops.

The world is facing many problems, such as food shortage, rising prices and environmental pollution. But due to GM crops , these problems are being dealt with by increasing crop production and decreasing the amounts of pesticides used. These modified crops reduce the extra cost of pesticide application and are stress resistant.

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